Archivio per il tag 'movimento'

Più movimento e meno seduti

L’età è solo un numero e sebbene non possiamo fermare il tempo, possiamo comunque influenzare come viviamo la nostra età.

Stai meno seduto e muoviti di più.

+ benessere con 5 minuti di movimento ogni ora di lavoro

Questa ricerca mostra che è meglio muoversi per 5 minuti ogni ora di lavoro per ottenere miglioramenti nel proprio benessere.

Audrey Bergouignan et al. (2016). Effect of frequent interruptions of prolonged sitting on self-perceived levels of energy, mood, food cravings and cognitive function. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13:113

While physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive performance and well-being, office workers are essentially sedentary. We compared the effects of physical activity performed as (i) one bout in the morning or (ii) as microbouts spread out across the day to (iii) a day spent sitting, on mood and energy levels and cognitive function.

Methods

In a randomized crossover trial, 30 sedentary adults completed each of three conditions: 6 h of uninterrupted sitting (SIT), SIT plus 30 min of moderate-intensity treadmill walking in the morning (ONE), and SIT plus six hourly 5-min microbouts of moderate-intensity treadmill walking (MICRO). Self-perceived energy, mood, and appetite were assessed with visual analog scales. Vigor and fatigue were assessed with the Profile of Mood State questionnaire. Cognitive function was measured using a flanker task and the Comprehensive Trail Making Test. Intervention effects were tested using linear mixed models.

Results

Both ONE and MICRO increased self-perceived energy and vigor compared to SIT (p < 0.05 for all). MICRO, but not ONE, improved mood, decreased levels of fatigue and reduced food cravings at the end of the day compared to SIT (p < 0.05 for all). Cognitive function was not significantly affected by condition.

Conclusions

In addition to the beneficial impact of physical activity on levels of energy and vigor, spreading out physical activity throughout the day improved mood, decreased feelings of fatigue and affected appetite. Introducing short bouts of activity during the workday of sedentary office workers is a promising approach to improve overall well-being at work without negatively impacting cognitive performance.

Movimento: rivista di psicologia dello sport

Movimento è la rivista fondata da Ferruccio Antonelli e che dirigo dal 1998. E’ una rivista che ha lo scopo di diffondere la cultura delle scienze dello sport con particolare riferimento alla psicologia e alle scienze umane attraverso la pubblicazione di ricerche scientifiche, di numeri monografici dedicati a temi specifici, di esperienze professionali significative e di best practices.

E’ una rivista autonoma da associazioni scientifiche e professionali che deve la sua permanenza sul mercato all’impegno dell’Editore Luigi Pozzi e al lavoro costante del comitato editoriale alla continua ricerca di temi di riflessioni e di studi da pubblicare.

In questo nuovo 2019, Movimento continuerà a realizzare la sua missione di diffondere i temi della psicologia e delle scienze umane ad allenatori, psicologi, dirigenti sportivi, insegnanti e più in generale si rivolge a chi vuole approfondire le proprie conoscenze in questi ambiti.

Naturalmente, saremo ben felici di ricevere articoli da professionisti e studiosi così come ricevere proposte per l’eventuale pubblicazione di numeri monotematici. Per ulteriori informazioni scrivere a: edizioni_pozzi@tin.it

 

+ età + attività fisica

Un nuovo report prodotto da Sheffield Hallam University, ukactive and DataHub ha messo in evidenza che in relazione all’allungarsi della vita delle persone, si  dovrebbe diventare più attivi con il trascorrere dell’età. Nel 2030 in Gran Bretagna le persone con almeno 60 anno saranno 20 milioni. Il sistema nazionale sanitario ha previsto che si potrebbero risparmiare 8 miliardi di sterline se gli over 55, che attualmente rappresentano il 31% della popolazione, praticassero attività fisica in modo regolare.

Naturalmente non è solo una questione economica ma di miglioramento del benessere individuale e sociale. E’ necessario creare degli spazi di attività fisica nei ritrovi pubblici e programmare azioni da svolgere nei quartieri di residenza delle persone.

Bisogna anche prevedere istruttori di fitness che siano anziani, così che possano dimostrare ai loro coetanei che è possibile essere attività a qualsiasi età.

Servirà un impegno significativo da parte del sistema sanitario nazionale per diffondere questo stile di vita attivo attraverso azioni concrete nelle città. Temo che questo approccio culturale sarà solo pura fantasia per l’Italia e che, come per altre situazioni, questo cambiamento avverrà solo se le associazioni non profit e le organizzazioni sportive in modo autonomo dallo Stato s’impegneranno a sviluppare questo tipo di programmi.

 

 

Gli anziani fisicamente attivi vivono più a lungo

Physically active older adults live longer with lower rates of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, cognitive decline, and osteoporosis. If that’s not enough incentive, they also enjoy more independence, balance, flexibility, cognitive function and improved self-esteem.

In order to reap these benefits, people over the age of 65 need at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous- physical activity per week according to Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines.

Looking for ways to incorporate more heart-pumping activity into your week?  Here are some tips to keep you moving:

1) INCORPORATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTO YOUR REGULAR ROUTINE

Bending, squatting, stretching and lifting are all part of everyday activities such as gardening, grocery shopping, and even putting on your socks. Up the ante by sneaking in some resistance-type moves like doing some heavier digging or lifting of grocery bags. Even something as simple as berry picking or walking can strengthen your bones and muscles.

2) KEEP A MOVEMENT LOG

Those who track, stay on track! Noting your activity daily can really help you reach your fitness  goals. Use a wearable tracker, an app on your smartphone, or simply mark your progress in a calendar.

3) GET IN THE WATER

Water supports your body weight and adds resistance. Swim laps or look out for a local aquafit class which can help you build endurance and muscle strength. Many pools have accessible ramps making it easier to get in and out. The warmth of the water can also soothe aching joints.

4) EMBARK ON AN 8-WEEK WALKING PROGRAM

Walking is one of the safest and most enjoyable forms of fitness, not to mention it’s free! Aim for 15 min to start then gradually work your way up to 30 minutes per day. This is a great option for people with arthritis because it doesn’t put a lot of strain on the joints.

5) EXPLORE NEW ACTIVITIES

You’ve probably heard of tai chi (great for building strength and balance!), but have you ever tried geocaching? Participants use a GPS to find containers called geocaches. They’re hidden all over the world so you can participate anywhere. If that doesn’t appeal, go dancing, do yoga, or play pickleball. Trying something new will help keep you motivated and inspired!

6) PLAY IT SAFE

Whatever activity you choose, make sure to start slow, wear appropriate footwear, stay hydrated, and always check with your doctor before starting any new physical activity program.

 

Rassegna su: coordinazione motoria, autismo

Lo sport si sta sempre più avvicinando al mondo dei giovani con autismo (ASD) e può essere di notevole aiuto nel migliorare le loro abilità motorie e il loro grado di autonomia, nonché nel ridurre il rischio che acquisiscano uno stile di vita sedentario. Questa rassegna, anche se di qualche anno fa, fornisce informazioni importanti a coloro che vogliono proporre dei programmi di educazione motoria e sportivi ai giovani con ASD. Non si trovano informazioni pratiche ma quelle teoriche, basate su dati scientifici, che chi si avvicina a questi giovani dovrebbe conoscere (ovviamente insieme a molte altre).

Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

Kimberly A. Fournier, Chris J. Hass, Sagar K. Naik, Neha Lodha, and James H. Cauraugh

J Autism Dev Disord (2010) 40:1227–1240

The literature focusing on gross motor behavior and development in ASD is plagued by inconsistent findings.

ASD is associated with greater clumsiness, motor coordination abnormalities, postural instability, and poor performance on standardized tests of motor functioning

Several studies failed to detect differences between children with ASD and those with learning disabilities or mental retardation, general developmental delay and language disorders across reflexive, intentional, fine and gross motor tasks.

These studies provide critical information regarding the types of motor impairments seen in ASD, but the specific patterns and sources of motor deficits in this population remain unclear.

Other approaches to elucidating motor components of ASD include neural signaling. Abnormal transmission in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and GABAergic systems, frequently observed in ASD, may potentially affect motor performance

Individuals with ASD have larger total brain, cerebellar and caudate nucleus volumes; however, the area of the corpus callosum is reduced.

Several related studies in which motor behavior was evaluated using home videos of children later diagnosed with ASD compared to typically developing children demonstrated motor differences within the first 2 years of age.

This review study showed:

Differences in motor performance observed are not dependent upon a specific diagnosis within ASD. Indeed, individuals diagnosed with autism, globally as ASD, or Asperger’s syndrome all possessed significant motor deficits compared to the individuals with normal neurologic development.

An immature postural system may severely limit the emergence and performance of other motor skills.

Movement disturbances such as akinesia, dyskinesia and bradykinesia may affect a person’s ability to initiate, switch, continue or effectively communicate, interact socially, or perform activities of daily living.

That motor coordination deficits were more prevalent in individuals diagnosed with ASD than in controls with neurologically typical development.

Consistent evidence for an increase in total brain volume as well as specific brain regions including the cerebral hemispheres, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum in autism. Conversely, the corpus callosum was consistently reduced in size. Moreover, post mortem studies have detailed increased numbers of altered cortical mini-columns that may lead to a less well-organized cerebral cortex and less integration among brain regions reported children with high functioning autism demonstrated diffusely decreased connectivity across the motor execution network relative to children with normal neurodevelopment.

Children with high functioning autism had significantly smaller grey matter volumes in subcortical, posterior cingulate, and precuneus regions than those diagnosed with Asperger’s. Compared to controls, smaller grey matter volumes in predominantly frontopallidal regions were observed in high functioning autism where as in Asperger’s less grey matter was observed in bilateral caudate and left thalamus. It has been found higher white matter volumes around the basal ganglia in high functioning autism than in Asperger’s or controls. Both ASD groups, however, possessed greater white matter volume than controls. Conversely, both ASD groups had less frontal and corpus collasol white matter.

Taken together these mechanistic findings suggest a broad, large area with disarranged neuronal organization and cortical connectivity across ASD.

Come vincere la nostra pigrizia

Sono passati 19 anni da questa intervista sulla sedentarietà ma direi che i consigli suggeriti per diventare più attivi sono ancora validi.

 

Giornata Mondiale dell’Attività Fisica

2017-cartaz-agitamundo-en-teaser

Lo sviluppo motorio e psicosociale in bambini con disabilità intellettive attraverso il calcio

Movimento

Rivista di Psicologia e Scienze del Movimento e dello Sport

n.2/3, 2016, 63 pagine

Roma: Edizioni Luigi Pozzi

 

Lo sviluppo motorio e psicosociale in bambini con disabilità intellettive attraverso il calcio

Motor and psychosocial development in children with intellectual disabilities through soccer

 

Alberto Cei*’, Paolo Franceschi^, Michele Rosci^, Daniela Sepio’ e Bruno Ruscello°

*Università San Raffaele, Roma e ASD Calcio Integrato

^AS Roma Calcio

‘ASD Calcio Integrato

°Università di Tor Vergata, Roma

 

Parole chiave: bambini, autismo, calcio, apprendimento, empowerment

Key words: children, autism, soccer, learning, empowerment

 

 

Abstract

Calcio Insieme (Soccer Together) is a project promoted by Roma Cares Foundation, non-profit organization linked to the broader context of Social Responsibility and Sustainability of AS ROMA and A.S.D. Accademia di Calcio Integrato, whose objective is the development of education and culture integrated to the values of sport through the soccer.

Soccer is the sport most loved and practiced by girls and boys around the world, but for young people with developmental difficulties are rare, if not absent, the opportunities allowing them to live this sport as an educational and playful experience. Therefore, this applied research project, spread over three years, is aimed at children (6-12 years) with intellectual disabilities and with particular reference to those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Soccer Together project wants to promote the physical activity and soccer teaching for these children, in order to improve the quality of their lives through a continuous sport practice over time. Furthermore, this project wants also to develop a methodology model of teaching, tailored for these children, through this applied research.

Soccer Together began in September 2015 with the collaboration of some schools of Roma. They promoted among families of children with intellectual disabilities the knowledge of this initiative. They organized information meetings lead by the staff of Soccer Together to start building a community whose school, family, sport organization and staff could feel part of a common project at its center there are the children with intellectual disabilities and especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since the beginning the project has had as main focus the empowerment of each child through the soccer, as recommended by the International Paralympic Committee.

To better understand the different steps of the experiment carried out by the technical-scientific staff of Soccer Together at the Giulio Onesti Center, in Roma, it’s important to acknowledge what are the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and what are the limits and the motor/psychological potential of children with ASD; the report describes in detail the main features and the research results.

This report begins with an overview of autism spectrum disorders and what are the limits and the motor potential of these children. It emerges that, up to now, the experiences carried out in this area included only individual sports and that no investigation has been conducted to test how the group sports and soccer specifically could be a means of improving the motor/sports skills and the psychological and interpersonal skills. In the section devoted to the method are described the diagnoses of 30 children (27 boys and 3 girls). They  have participated in the project by attending at the training program for an hour twice a week for 5 months. They were divided into two sub-groups (Green and Red) as a function of their motor skills and psycho-relational competences. All children were subjected to the initial and final motor assessment. Similarly it proceeded with the psychological and interpersonal evaluation carried out at the beginning and at the end of the program. This was done through interviews with parents and their school teachers and an assessment carried out on the field for the duration of the period of activities carried out by the football coaches and the sport psychologists. In addition, before the start of the program, the whole staff,  including sport psychologists, youth football instructors, one speech therapist, one sport physician and one coordinator of the relations with families and schools have participated in a specific training, theoretical and practical, learning to be sensitive and to work with young individuals with developmental disorders. The results showed that in relation to motor skills there are significant differences from the initial assessment in relation to 6 tests out of 10. The children improved in tests regarding: walking between the cones, running between the cones, roll on the mat, high jump (3 obstacles 20 / 30cm), grab (5 launches from 1 to 5 meters away from the instructor) and stay balanced on jellyfish.

In relation to run with the ball (to drive the ball into a space 15m long and 4m wide) were detected two results. The first is that, even at the end of the program, 39.3% of children did not show any improvement. The second is of opposite sign and shows that 28.6% is placed in an intermediate skill level. They drive the ball, move frequently left and right even if out of the lane. In addition, 10.7% shows a medium-high skill level, driving the ball without leaving the lane. These data show there is a significant difference from the point of view of the motor competences among the children, while for some the training it’s characterized more as motor activity oriented to the acquisition of basic motor patterns, for others it’s oriented to  teach the soccer fundamentals.

The questionnaire administered at the end of the program to the parents of the children examined the following skills: cooperation, participation in the games, understanding the others and be understood, communicate with each other, socialize, approach the new situations/people and reduction of behavioral problems. For each of these skills, the parents have expressed a final assessment, it showed that they believe their children are improved significantly. It’s also interesting to note that the same questionnaire was administered to school support teachers of children and the resulting data are similar to those experienced by parents. Assessments made on the field by sport psychologists and coaches have shown that most of young people have improved, even if  they achieved very different skill levels, depending on the difficulty level initially expressed. For the future, there are clearly detectable paths of physical activity and sports differentiating the two children groups (Red and Green).

In summary, these data confirm the findings of the research review conducted on people with autism spectrum disorder (Sowa e Meulenbroek, 2012). That is to say, that the motor/sport skills increase with specific program of motor/sports learning. Our study adds that the organization of training sessions in group interventions and individual interventions promote the development of social skills, as in part it has been showed by Walker, Barry and Bader (2010). This pilot study has also responded to the request to organize “a naturalistic intervention based on group sports like soccer” (Sowa and Meulenbroek, 2012; p.56) and, till now it was never been documented. In addition, as already showed (Luiselli 2014), the behavioral problems were reduced, decreasing the stereotyped movements and the self-stimulation behaviors.

Finally, it should be mentioned those results achieved which are not identifiable in scientific terms but that at the same time are important for a project with the aim to reduce the limits of the children with ASD and widen their skills at 360 degrees. The most significant are the following: the first football games played between them and the coaches and two games 4vs4 with players of Roma Academy; the identification process with AS Roma has increased the children socialization and stimulated their pride being a part of Roma team; live this experience with professionals totally dedicated to them and willing to respect the times of socialization and learning while not ceasing to guide them in the activities; for families it has been important to meet each other, sharing these experiences and feeling themselves as an active part of the project.