Tag Archive for 'obesità'

Risk of overweight and obesity in children with autism

The risk of overweight and obesity in children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Kahathuduwa CNWest BD  Blume J  Dharavath  Moustaid-Moussa N Mastergeorge A

Obesity reviews. 2019 Oct 8

Multiple studies have suggested that autism spectrum disorders seem to increase the risk of overweight and obesity. We examined the pooled prevalence and relative risk of developing overweight or obesity among children with autism spectrum disorders in a systematic review and meta‐analysis. We searched PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases and subsequently screened the records to identify studies that reported prevalence of overweight and/or obesity in children with ASD and matched groups of neurotypical children. DerSimonian‐Laird random‐effects meta‐analyses were performed to examine pooled prevalence and relative risk of obesity in children with autism spectrum disorders using the “meta” package in R software. Among children with autism spectrum disorders, the prevalence of obesity was 22.2%. Children with ASD had a 41.1% greater risk (P = .018) of development of obesity. Non‐Caucasian race, increasing age, female sex, and living in the United States emerged as positive moderators of the association between autism spectrum disorders and prevalence of overweight or obesity. Autism spectrum disorders seem to increase the risk of childhood obesity. Increased awareness of this association may allow the implementation of early interventions to reduce obesity and prevent potential deterioration of quality‐of‐life in this population.

To tackle chilhood obesity

Protecting children’s rights: why governments must be bold to tackle childhood obesity

Oliver T Mytton, Claire Fenton-Glynn, Emma Pawson Russell, M Viner Sally C Davies

“The UK Chief Medical Officer’s independent review of childhood obesity, Time to Solve Childhood Obesity, was published on Oct 10, 2019.

In England the prevalence of childhood obesity is too high; about 20% of children aged 10–11 years are obese(≥95th centile on the UK90 growth charts).

There is widespread public support for action with three “chapters” of an ambitious plan outlined by the UK Government.

Now we need a focus on implementing solutions, and the independent review calls for bold action to improve children’s health.
Today, the high prevalence of obesity in children is the canary in the coal mine, an early warning that things are wrong in the environment. Too few children have access to healthy, affordable food, and too few are sufficiently active for health. Additionally, many environmental factors contribute to child ill-health:
  • shops and many public places flooded with heavily promoted less-healthy food options;
  • advertising and sponsorship that place less-healthy foods centre stage in young minds;
  • urban streets dominated by traffic, with too few opportunities to walk to school, to ride a bicycle, or simply to play and explore.
These issues affect all our children. However, not all children are affected equally. Children who grow up in deprived neighbourhoods are disproportionately affected.”

$170 million to fight against sedentary

Unfortunately, the vast majority of Americans don’t get enough exercise and a growing segment doesn’t get any exercise. Technology has allowed us to get by with less and less physical activity. Seventy-five years ago, it was very difficult to even make a living sitting down, but nowadays more and more people work sedentary jobs where they are seated a big portion of the day—and their bodies are rebelling for it!

  • Diabetes is on the increase and predicted to affect 1 in 3 people by 2050.
  • 70.7% percent of Americans aged 20 and older are overweight
  • 37.9% of Americans aged 20 and older are obese
  • Heart disease is still the leading cause of death in America. One in three deaths is related to heart disease

In 2017, US-NIH will launch a huge study to document in detail exactly what is happening in the body when exercising and prove that exercise is medicine.

The six-year, $170 million study will follow 3,000 sedentary people ranging from children to the elderly as they embark on an exercise program. A control group, who will remain sedentary, will also be tracked for comparison.

Praise of walking

Walking is the first thing an infant wants to do and the last thing an old person wants to give up.  Walking is the exercise that does not need a gym.  It is the prescription without medicine, the weight control without diet, and the cosmetic that can’t be found in a chemist.  It is the tranquilliser without a pill, the therapy without a psychoanalyst, and the holiday that does not cost a penny.  What’s more, it does not pollute, consumes few natural resources and is highly efficient.  Walking is convenient, it needs no special equipment, is self-regulating and inherently safe.  Walking is as natural as breathing.

John Butcher, Founder Walk21

The weight condition of the child’s is correlated with that of the parents. In fact, when at least one parent is overweight 22.2% of the children is overweight and 5.6% obese. When at least one parent is obese, 30.7% of children are overweight and 13.3% obese. These data regards Modena, city in the Central Italy, other Regions showed worst results.

20-minutes walk to avoid obesity risk

Lack of exercise is twice as likely to determine the obesity beginning and a daily break of 20-minute walk permits to avoid the premature death.

The effects of obesity and exercise have been studied on 334,161 men and women for 12 years period . Although the impact of exercise was greatest among people of a normal weight, even those with a high body mass index (BMI) levels saw a benefit. Lack of exercise was thought to have caused almost 700,000 deaths across Europe in 2008.

Study leader Prof Ulf Ekelund – Medical Research Council (MRC) epidemiology unit at Cambridge University, said: “This is a simple message: just a small amount of physical activity each day could have substantial health benefits for people who are physically inactive. Although we found that just 20 minutes would make a difference, we should really be looking to do more than this – physical activity has many proven health benefits and should be an important part of our daily life.”

Participants in the research, who had an average age of about 50, were recruited to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (Epic) study conducted across 10 European countries, including the UK. All had their height, weight and waist sizes measured and provided self-assessments of physical activity levels.

Just under a quarter (22.7%) were categorised as inactive, working in sedentary jobs without engaging in any recreational exercise.

The findings, which are published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, say the greatest reductions in the risk of premature death were seen when comparing moderately active groups with those who were completely inactive.

Using the most recent available public data, the researchers calculated that 337,000 of the 9.2m deaths that occurred in Europe in 2008 could be attributed to obesity, but physical inactivity was thought to be responsible for almost double this number – 676,000 deaths.

Co-author Prof Nick Wareham, director of the MRC epidemiology unit, said: “Helping people to lose weight can be a real challenge and, whilst we should continue to aim at reducing population levels of obesity, public health interventions that encourage people to make small but achievable changes in physical activity can have significant health benefits and may be easier to achieve and maintain.”

June Davison, senior cardiac nurse at the British Heart Foundation, said: “The results of this study are a clear reminder that being regularly physically active can reduce the risk of dying from coronary heart disease.

“The research suggests that just a modest increase in physical activity can have health benefits. Adults should aim to do at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity a week, carrying it out in sessions of 10 minutes or more.

“Whether it’s going for a walk, taking a bike ride or using the stairs instead of the lift, keeping active every day will help reduce the risk of developing coronary heart disease.”

Lifestyle and dementia

Lifestyle is responsible for up to 76% of changes in the ageing of the brain according to “Age UK and there are 5 steps people can take to maintain brain health and reduce their risk of developing dementia.

The review of academic studies and data reveals that about 76% of cognitive decline – changes in thinking skills with age including memory loss and speed of thinking – is accounted for by lifestyle and other environmental factors including level of education.

The finding from The Disconnected Mind, an Age UK funded research project into how thinking skills alter with age, which was part of the analysis, suggests that there is significant potential to influence these changes.

Furthermore, Age UK’s review, which included the latest international dementia studies, indicates that certain lifestyle factors – regular physical exercise, eating a Mediterranean diet, not smoking and drinking alcohol in moderation  – decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s, and other forms of dementia. In addition, preventing and treating diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity were also found to reduce the risk of dementia.

Exercise ‘most effective’ way to prevent cognitive decline

One large UK study carried out over 30 years found that men aged between 45 and 59 who followed 4-5 of the identified lifestyle factors were found to have a 36% lower risk of developing cognitive decline and a 36% lower risk of developing dementia than those who did not.

Age UK’s evidence review  also revealed  that physical exercise – aerobic, resistance or balance -  was the most effective way to ward off cognitive decline in healthy older people and reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Studies suggest that exercise 3 to 5 times a week for between 30 minutes and an hour is beneficial.

Significantly more cases of Alzheimer’s among smokers

But the evidence review also showed that a healthy diet, moderate alcohol intake and not smoking also play a role in ensuring healthy brain ageing  as well as reducing the risk of developing dementia.

It found that there are significantly more new cases of Alzheimer’s among current smokers compared with those who have never smoked.

The review also backed up claims that very heavy drinking is also linked to dementia, resulting in the loss of brain tissue particularly in the parts of the brain responsible for memory and processing and interpreting visual information.

Moderate levels of alcohol, however, were found to protect brain tissue by increasing good cholesterol and lowering bad cholesterol.

According to the latest estimates, there are 850,000 people in the UK living with dementia. It will affect one in three people over the age of 65.

‘There are simple and effective ways to reduce our risk’

Age UK hopes the new evidence will spur people to make changes which will help them reduce the risk of developing dementia.

Caroline Abrahams, Charity Director of Age UK said ‘While there’s still no cure or way to reverse dementia, this evidence shows that there are simple and effective ways to reduce our risk of developing it to begin with.

‘What’s more, the changes that we need to make to keep our brains healthy are already proven to be good for the heart and overall health, so it’s common sense for us all to try to build them into our lives. The sooner we start, the better our chance of having a healthy later life.”

(From Age UK)

The world is fat

The World is Fat

Credit: George Retseck; Source: Barry M. Popkin University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

Overweight and obesity were estimated to afflict nearly 1.5 billion adults worldwide in 2008. One estimate, based on data our analysis of new data shows is an undercount, predicted in 2030 globally an estimated 2.16 billion adults will be overweight, and 1.12 billion will be obese.”

More “progress”, more diabete and obesity

The spread of obesity and type-2 diabetes could become epidemic in low-income countries, as more individuals are able to own higher priced items such as TVs, computers and cars. The findings of an international study, led by Simon Fraser University health sciences professor Scott Lear, are published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.

Lear headed an international research team that analyzed data on more than 150,000 adults from 17 countries, ranging from high and middle income to low-income nations.

Researchers, who questioned participants about ownership as well as physical activity and diet, found a 400 per cent increase in obesity and a 250 per cent increase in diabetes among owners of these items in low-income countries.

The study also showed that owning all three devices was associated with a 31 per cent decrease in physical activity, 21 per cent increase in sitting and a 9 cm increase in waist size compared with those who owned no devices.

Comparatively, researchers found no association in high-income countries, suggesting that the effects of owning items linked to sedentary lifestyles has already occurred, and is reflected in current high rates of these conditions.

“With increasing uptake of modern-day conveniences–TVs, cars, computers–low- and middle-income countries could see the same obesity and diabetes rates as in high-income countries that are the result of too much sitting, less physical activity and increased consumption of calories,” says Lear.

The results can lead to “potentially devastating societal health care consequences” in these countries, Lear adds. Rates of increase of obesity and diabetes are expected to rise as low- and middle-income countries develop and become more industrialized.

Obama and Biden jog at White House against children obesity

President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden showed their support for First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move campaign by having a brisk jog around the grounds of the White House. A video of their exertions was released in support of the campaign, which aims to tackle the issue of childhood obesity.

 

In Italy: obeses are 6.000.000

In Italy there are 6 million of obese costing the NHS 8 billion of euro. It’s a matter with a impressive existential cost  and an economic cost equal to the financial maneuvers of the government. They are not one-off costs, they are annual costs. They are not new data, and the passivity of the Italian governments faced with this problem is not new too. It’s a problem that year on year increased and no one tries to give meaningful answers. While there is much talk about cancer and there are rightly money to research into the causes and therapies to treat and prevent it. There is little talk about obesity, because in everyone’s mind it’s considered as a problem which depends only on the individual willingness to have a different life style. In other words, it does not nothing, because the social stereotypes is that people themselves are the cause of their evil. The same goes for physical inactivity, despite being the fourth leading death cause, itìs experienced as a leisure problem, personal laziness to do the daily movement that it would produce benefits to their cardiovascular system and more generally improve their well-being. So for the reason that anyone cares that we are obese, at least we enjoy eating killing us.