Archive for the 'Corsa' Category

The coaches have to be able to assess their professional experiences

A key factor for the improvement of the work of the coaches is the ability to evaluate their professional experience, with particular emphasis on the interactions with the athletes or team in training and in competition. The coaches must evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the work done, the reactions of the athletes and the difficulties and the solutions proposed.

This task must be carried out continuously over time, focusing on what happens during the workout and in competition.It is, therefore, not an episodic activity that takes place because they have to solve a problem, but it must be planned as an activity should be part of the usual way of doing things. In this sense, the coaches are facilitators, since they encourage the creation of a suitable climate to carry out training, developing the athletes’ competitiveness and their winning mentality. The coaches have to think to their professional experiences and need to be aware of:

  1. the decisions they take,
  2. the parameters that will enable to know that the training has been effective,
  3. the expectations about their athletes in connection with the training/competitions they perform,
  4. the difficulties they may face and the solutions to be adopted,
  5. how to deal with the competitions and how to evaluate the results,
  6. the plan to deal with unforeseen and unexpected events,
  7. what makes a successful or unsuccessful  season,
  8. how they might handle the tough times that will inevitably arise,
  9. how to face with the stress related to their profession,
  10. how they work with the staff and the management.

Book review: Francesco Panetta – Io corro da solo

Io corro da solo

Francesco Panetta

Gemini Grafica Editrice, 2017

«Molti libri sono stati scritti intorno all’atletica e alla corsa e soprattutto al mondo della corsa lunga. Lo faccio anch’io, evitando però di dare consigli a chi ama la disciplina. Ho realizzato questa pubblicazione con un’impronta diversa. Racconto delle mie esperienze, iniziando da quando ragazzino correvo con i miei amici in Calabria: il primo paio di scarpe da “tennis”, la prima corsa, l’arrivo a Milano. In queste 150 pagine non ci sono né tempi, né allenamenti, ma storie: la Pro Patria, i sogni, le mie opinioni sull’atletica e, nel trentesimo anniversario del mio successo Mondiale nelle siepi a Roma, un lungo capitolo dedicato a quella che è stata la mia grande impresa, senza tralasciare l’Europeo vinto tre anni dopo a Spalato nella stessa distanza».

Riporto le caratteristiche psicologico di Panetta che emergono dall’intervista raccolta da Roberta Orsenigo.

Lottare ”Era una mia caratteristica. Per me significava esprimere la mia forza fisica e mentale, non certo per spaventare gli altri. Io salivo sul ring e stabilivo la mia legge”.

Avventura ”Correre contro un avversario è come praticare la pesca d’altura, tu non sai quanto è grosso il pesce che hai all’amo, ma nemmeno lui sa quanto grosso e cazzuto sei tu. Vince spesso il più astuto, non il più forte”.

Motivazione interiore ”Ho sempre corso per me stesso, un viaggio durato quasi vent’anni. E’ uno sport individuale, la mente non la spegni mai. Devi avere la presunzione di essere sempre il migliore, la convinzione di essere il più forte”.

Allenatore eccellente ”Giorgio Rondelli sapeva come correvano i miei avversari, era sempre in campo con me, mi motivava. Il tecnico non deve solo preparare le tabelle, ma deve essere una presenza costante nella vita di un atleta”.

Fisico e Testa ”Si diventa campioni con il fisico, la testa e grazie alle persone che ti consigliano. Il talento non basta. E’ come studiare sempre”.

Sfidarsi ”Ogni volta che stabilivo un personale, Rondelli mi faceva competere con i meno bravi. Mi diceva: solo quando riuscirai a tener a bada i più lenti, allora potrai confrontarti con i migliori. Allenarsi significa imparare a fare le cose che non sai fare”.

Passione ”Perché correvo? Correvo perché mi piaceva andare forte, migliorarmi. Se potessi tornare indietro, però, non vorrei ritrovarmi sul rettilineo della pista di Roma, ma in quel paesino finlandese dove ho passato ore ad allenarmi. Oppure a Nova Milanese, quando correvo dietro la bicicletta del mio allenatore”.

Self-discovery is out on the roads

Immagine correlata

A common bias: the warmup is useful to avoid the injuries

There’s a lot of confusion among athletes in relation to the warmup function.

For some is practiced to avoid getting hurt.

For others it’s something to do well just before the races, but during the training they do not do ever in that way.

For almost everyone it’s a rather boring phase in which to prepare to start very well the competition.

It is often regarded like a school homework and it’s performed without conviction and with a reduced mental effort.

For example, almost no guy gets exhaling during the stretching. Let us remember that the first determines the later. Then bad stretching corresponds to a limited elongation and reduced muscle distension, with all the negative consequences coming if this kind of execution is repeated over time.

Review: motor coordination, autism

The sport is increasingly getting closer to the world of youth with autism (ASD) and it can be of considerable help in improving their motor skills and their degree of autonomy, reducing the risk of acquiring a sedentary lifestyle. This review, although published a few years ago, provides valuable information to those who want to propose physical education and sports programs for young with ASD. They are not practical information but those theories, science-based, that who is approaching these young  should know (obviously along with many others).

Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

Kimberly A. Fournier, Chris J. Hass, Sagar K. Naik, Neha Lodha, and James H. Cauraugh

J Autism Dev Disord (2010) 40:1227–1240

The literature focusing on gross motor behavior and development in ASD is plagued by inconsistent findings.

ASD is associated with greater clumsiness, motor coordination abnormalities, postural instability, and poor performance on standardized tests of motor functioning

Several studies failed to detect differences between children with ASD and those with learning disabilities or mental retardation, general developmental delay and language disorders across reflexive, intentional, fine and gross motor tasks.

These studies provide critical information regarding the types of motor impairments seen in ASD, but the specific patterns and sources of motor deficits in this population remain unclear.

Other approaches to elucidating motor components of ASD include neural signaling. Abnormal transmission in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and GABAergic systems, frequently observed in ASD, may potentially affect motor performance

Individuals with ASD have larger total brain, cerebellar and caudate nucleus volumes; however, the area of the corpus callosum is reduced.

Several related studies in which motor behavior was evaluated using home videos of children later diagnosed with ASD compared to typically developing children demonstrated motor differences within the first 2 years of age.

This review study showed:

Differences in motor performance observed are not dependent upon a specific diagnosis within ASD. Indeed, individuals diagnosed with autism, globally as ASD, or Asperger’s syndrome all possessed significant motor deficits compared to the individuals with normal neurologic development.

An immature postural system may severely limit the emergence and performance of other motor skills.

Movement disturbances such as akinesia, dyskinesia and bradykinesia may affect a person’s ability to initiate, switch, continue or effectively communicate, interact socially, or perform activities of daily living.

That motor coordination deficits were more prevalent in individuals diagnosed with ASD than in controls with neurologically typical development.

Consistent evidence for an increase in total brain volume as well as specific brain regions including the cerebral hemispheres, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum in autism. Conversely, the corpus callosum was consistently reduced in size. Moreover, post mortem studies have detailed increased numbers of altered cortical mini-columns that may lead to a less well-organized cerebral cortex and less integration among brain regions reported children with high functioning autism demonstrated diffusely decreased connectivity across the motor execution network relative to children with normal neurodevelopment.

Children with high functioning autism had significantly smaller grey matter volumes in subcortical, posterior cingulate, and precuneus regions than those diagnosed with Asperger’s. Compared to controls, smaller grey matter volumes in predominantly frontopallidal regions were observed in high functioning autism where as in Asperger’s less grey matter was observed in bilateral caudate and left thalamus. It has been found higher white matter volumes around the basal ganglia in high functioning autism than in Asperger’s or controls. Both ASD groups, however, possessed greater white matter volume than controls. Conversely, both ASD groups had less frontal and corpus collasol white matter.

Taken together these mechanistic findings suggest a broad, large area with disarranged neuronal organization and cortical connectivity across ASD.

The tactics in sports

The tactic is a key factor of success in many sports, not just team sports. In summary, it’s to do the right thing at the right time and therefore requires timing, precision, awareness and quickness. They are skills that athletes must develop, otherwise they will probably perform doing the right thing at the wrong time or even they choked because dominated by performance anxiety.

The tactic consists of a set of factors that lead to sports action:

  • Have specific and achievable performance goals, adapted to the situational demands of the competition.
  • Know your skills and expertise, knowing the odds of success and risk.
  • Develop the situational awareness, perceive and analyze situations, choose between alternatives and use the personal insights.
  • Quickly change the action plan, if it does not produced the effects expected.
  • Act supported by thoughts and emotions.

The culture of mental toughness

The development of mental toughness has often been regarded as a strictly individual factor and we have few information to understand how the sport organizations show and build their culture of toughness and how this promotes the athletes’ toughness .

The article by Eubanks, Nesti e Littlewood (2017), A culturally informed approach to mental toughness development in high performance sport, IJSP, 48, 206-222, revived some new insights about this topic.

The purpose is to explore the importance of culture in the development of Mental Toughness (MT). This is done by means of a critical review of the current literature that exists in relation to the conceptualisation, definition and development of the concept. We argue that despite recent advances in our understanding, most research into MT has focused on the characteristics of mentally tough individuals. Although important and useful, the role of the environment, culture and context, and how these impact MT and its development has been given somewhat less attention and is perhaps not well integrated into practice.

The notion of Mental Toughness (MT) being broadly represented by “the ability to achieve personal goals in the face of pressure from a wide range of different stressors” (Hardy et al., 2014).

One of the criticisms frequently levelled at psychology as an academic discipline is that it often focuses on the individual, and forgets, or ignores the environment within which the individual exists.

Culture may be best seen as the hidden yet influential force, involving core values, beliefs, and traditions that operates as a type of soft power, which shape the working practices, ideas, strategies and philosophies of groups and individuals.

Weinberg et al. (2011) focused on the views of ten National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches, who reported that a tough physical practice environment, a positive men-tal environment and an environment that provided mental toughness awareness and learning opportunities were fundamental to MT development.

The authors said that is clear that the optimum environments to build MT are those that are imbued with a challenging and stimulating culture, where personal responsibility is emphasised in all things.


How the environment can influence our kids

The problems related to kid sports (and not just, think of the baby gang)  have always urged psychologists. At this regard I would like to recall that the issue came out not just in these last years but that back in 1980 Rainer Martens wrote a chapter called “Kid sports: A den of iniquity or a land of promise?” In conclusion, to explain how the environment can affect our young he reported these words, which today continue to be true.

Risultati immagini per if a child lives with criticism he learns to condemn