Tag Archive for 'attività fisica'

How too assess our fitness without fear

How to mentally approach the fitness assessment exercises

This part represents the beginning of the physical work and is strongly influenced by your mental attitude. The assessment tests represent the first step of the training program, and the psychological condition with which you approach them determines together with the physical condition the results you will obtain. Therefore, it is necessary to approach this activity with a mental attitude that favors not only the best motor expression of which you are currently capable, but also in an emotionally pleasant way. A negative psychological approach to testing can manifest itself with the following thoughts:

  1. Terror with regard to the tables - the individual with this approach provides a negative, self-evaluating assessment of himself or herself if he or she fails to achieve the intermediate or fair level from the first assessment test.
  2. I will never be able to improve - the individual with this approach does not believe themselves to be able to improve. He or she feels crushed under the weight of an inability that will crush him or her anyway and, therefore, is not even capable of thinking he or she can improve.
  3. I am too old or too fat - this approach differs from the previous attitude because the individual attributes the inability to improve to an objective factor, his age or weight.
  4. I am ashamed of my physique - this idea often limits the action of those who approach an activity before even starting it.

What to do when these concerns are present. One possibility is to focus on the positive aspects that increase the motivation to get involved in the activity. A positive approach is characterized as follows:

  1. Tables represent only indicative values - Tables represent a standardized system that take into account only one individual variable – age – and ignore the others. Is it possible that a bricklayer and a clerk have the same results after the first evaluation test? Of course not!
  2. I build my table - It is good to use the first test to establish what your current base level is and build on this to build better levels of fitness.
  3. I improve with training - It is necessary to be aware that whatever the starting fitness level, physical activity carried out following a program will determine an improvement that will produce well-being.
  4. Exercise is enjoyable and important to me - before training begins it is important that the person considers what they are about to do as important and positive to learn.

10 reasons to increase the young physical activity

Let’s remember why exercise is essential for the young development.

  1. It improves the cardiovascular system, so aerobic activity and its ability to circulate blood and oxygen has been used to explain improvements in brain function and cognition (increased capillary growth).
  2. Increased neural network due to greater diffusion of neurotransmitters.
  3. Growth of new neurons in areas of the hippocampus that promote learning and memory.
  4. In young people the greater the demands of school performance, the greater the need for breaks.
  5. Free, unstructured play reduces cognitive interference, promoting learning. More evident in children than in adolescents and adults (cognitive immaturity hypothesis).
  6. Affective relationships and collaboration with peers support learning and inhibit antisocial behavior.
  7. Gradual development of “executive skills” (response inhibition, memory, and decision-making flexibility).
  8. The amount of time children are involved in motor activity and sports is proportional to their school performance; the more time the greater the educational benefits for children and adolescents.
  9. An important consideration for school administrators is the impact of motor activity programs on academic achievement. Schools with more minutes of physical activity have higher levels of academic achievement.
  10. A program called “system-fit” that integrates age-appropriate physical activity is an opportunity to help children who can be defined as kinesthetic-student and children who do not adjust well to the school environment.

 

Sport and disability in Italy

The Paralympic Games highlighted the value of sport as an expression of self-realization and inclusion. In 2019, Istat had produced a report on the world of disability in Italy of which we report what was highlighted in relation to sport.

For people with disabilities, in the past, there was no possibility of practicing physical-sport activities, especially at a competitive level; only in the twentieth century appeared the first sports events of an international nature. Despite the fact that the concept of Sport for All is now widely shared, involvement in sport remains very low.

  • Only 9.1% practice a sport on a regular basis. The proportion of sportsmen and women increases significantly when their limitations are less severe (reaching 20.5%). Among the population with no limitations it corresponds to 36.6%.
  • People with severe limitations who, while not practicing sports, do some physical activity, are 14.4% (less than half of the value reached by the population with no limitations, i.e., 29.1%). Among people with less severe limitations, those who are engaged in physical activities are 27.6%.
  • Out of 10 people with severe limitations, about 8 declare they are totally inactive, that is, sedentary, and do not engage in any sport or physical activity, compared with 34.1% among the population without limitations.
  • Among people with severe limitations, significant differences are seen in gender (13.7% of men play sports, but only 6.0% of women) and age (20.7% of people under 65 play sports, compared with 2.7% of the elderly).
  • Territorial distances are observed with a marked North-South gradient: 11.9% of people with serious limitations living in the North participate in sports, compared with 6.3% of those living in the South.
  • Socio-economic inequalities are also strong: among people with severe limitations who have a medium-high level of education or excellent or adequate economic resources, higher levels of involvement in physical-sporting activities are achieved.
  • Higher levels of adequate physical activity are observed among people with (moderate or severe) difficulty in sensory areas (9.5% compared with 21% of people without any limitation in this functional area), and much lower levels among people with (severe or moderate) difficulty in walking30 (3.3% compared with 21% of those not limited in this area).

Exercise and cancer prevention

  1. Getting regular exercise is about to become increasingly important to help prevent cancer.
  2. A growing number of people report gaining weight after cutting back on physical activity, while others say they eat more junk food.
  3. Being overweight or obese leaves individuals vulnerable to tissue damage and cancer development, with more than a dozen types of cancer that have been linked to excess weight in recent studies.
  4. Tobacco and smoking remain the leading cause of cancer; obesity is now the second highest risk and is likely to become the leading cause in the future.
  5. People are quitting smoking but increasing numbers are becoming overweight and obese.
  6. It is predicted that by 2040 obesity will have surpassed smoking as the leading preventable cause of cancer.
  7. breast and bowel cancers benefit from better physical activity.
  8. Scientists found that gentle exercise reduced levels of liver inflammation in mice, which can lead to tumors, and improved metabolism in older mice, even in those that had advanced liver disease. Physiological activityResearch is important because liver cancer rates in humans have increased by three-fifths in the UK over the past decade,
  9. 135,000 cases of cancer – about four out of 10 British cases – could be prevented each year largely through lifestyle changes with more physical activity.
  10. The real problem is having too much fat in our bodies. However, there is plenty of evidence that helping people become more active can do a lot of good. And this area is understudied, so it’s very possible that there may be more cancer prevention benefits through increased physical activity that we don’t yet know about.
(Source: The Guardian)

In Italy, no square for physical activity at school

I read the rules for opening schools in Italy.

Physical activity has disappeared and gyms will become classrooms.

Dysfunctional conception of young people’s development is highlighted.

Obesity and sedentarily will increase: the parents’ weight status, their level of education and family income are associated with the Child’s Body Mass Index. So those who are more disadvantaged will be even more!

Physical activity and depression

New study shows Physical Activity dramatically reduces depression despite genetic high-risk. Evidence-based primary prevention for #depression must include Physical Activity background.

 

Karmel W. Choi et al. Physical activity offsets genetic risk for incident depression assessed via electronic health records in a biobank cohort study. Depression & Anxiety, 5 novembre 2019.

Abstract

Background

Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important modifiable factor for depression. However, the extent to which individuals with stable risk factors for depression, such as high genetic vulnerability, can benefit from the protective effects of physical activity, remains unknown. Using a longitudinal biobank cohort integrating genomic data from 7,968 individuals of European ancestry with high‐dimensional electronic health records and lifestyle survey responses, we examined whether physical activity was prospectively associated with reduced risk for incident depression in the context of genetic vulnerability.

Methods

We identified individuals with incident episodes of depression, based on two or more diagnostic billing codes for a depressive disorder within 2 years following their lifestyle survey, and no such codes in the year prior. Polygenic risk scores were derived based on large‐scale genome‐wide association results for major depression. We tested main effects of physical activity and polygenic risk scores on incident depression, and effects of physical activity within stratified groups of polygenic risk.

Results

Polygenic risk was associated with increased odds of incident depression, and physical activity showed a protective effect of similar but opposite magnitude, even after adjusting for BMI, employment status, educational attainment, and prior depression. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with reduced odds of incident depression across all levels of genetic vulnerability, even among individuals at highest polygenic risk.

Conclusions

Real‐world data from a large healthcare system suggest that individuals with high genetic vulnerability are more likely to avoid incident episodes of depression if they are physically active.

Italy continues to be a sedentary country

The sport for all in Italy is now considered to be like the air for the prisoners, toreduce a bit the frustrations that plague us. So at school there are no more than two hours a week and the physical education teacher is the least considered in the class councils. Fortunately, there are parents who are willing to pay to ensure that their children are engaged in a club sport. Not to mention the adult to whom it has never been no policy to introduce them to an active approach to physical activity. It’s an old and repetitive speech that has returned to the fore at the conference organized by the Italian Olympic Committee and Istat on the theme “Sport in Italy – Numbers and Context 2014.”  It  was found that the sedentaries are more than 24 million, or nearly 42 % of Italians. Percentage who is an Everest to the South, 56.2%, while in the North down to 31.7% and Centre to 41%. To understand the dramatic nature of these data, I just remember that in Europe, the countries with higher practitioners, according to the Eurobarometer survey on sport and physical activity, are those of Northern Europe: Sweden, where 70% of people say to do gymnastics or sports at least once a week, they are just over Denmark (68%) and Finland (66%) followed by the Netherlands (58%) and Luxembourg (54%).

More than a quarter of European citizens don’t practice any king of physical exercise outside working hours. In Italy, this figure rises to 43%. The latest Eurostat statistics reveal this. According to this dataset, 28% of Europeans in 2017 did not do any kind of exercise in their free time.

Ranked bar chart of share of population who exercise outside work, 2017

Negative side of the list, there are Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cipro, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Italy and Hungary. Even if the sport as a physically active lifestyle, it’s not part of the Italian political agenda, however, we must move from mere complaint to concrete proposals. I refer to some among those made in the USA from 50 scientific associations:

  • Public education programs to ensure that all Americans understand the benefits of healthy lifestyles and how to take advantage of the range of options open to them;
  • Professional education so that health professionals consider physical activity a vital sign like blood pressure and cholesterol levels, to be monitored and tracked regularly;
  • Electronic Medical Records that include fields for physical activity. As health provider systems convert to EMRs, they can easily begin to track exercise as a vital sign;
  • Medical school curricula that give all physicians an adequate grounding in how to counsel patients on healthy lifestyles, and
  • Increased opportunities for underserved populations to enjoy exercise and physical activity, by addressing disparities in the built environment, access to equipment and other barriers.

Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing

Bangsbo J, Blackwell J, Boraxbekk C, et al Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing. Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 21 February 2019.
Abstract

From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity.

The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults.Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies.

The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power.

This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness.

The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.

#JFK #sport

“Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.”

John F. Kennedy

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