Tag Archive for 'allenamento.'

Delaying and reversing frailty in old age: a systematic review

John Travers, Roman Romero-Ortuno, Jade Bailey and Marie-Therese Cooney
Br J Gen Pract 3 December 2018

Abstract

Background Recommendations for routine frailty screening in general practice are increasing as frailty prevalence grows. In England, frailty identification became a contractual requirement in 2017. However, there is little guidance on the most effective and practical interventions once frailty has been identified.

Aim To assess the comparative effectiveness and ease of implementation of frailty interventions in primary care.

Design and setting A systematic review of frailty interventions in primary care.

Method Scientific databases were searched from inception to May 2017 for randomised controlled trials or cohort studies with control groups on primary care frailty interventions. Screening methods, interventions, and outcomes were analysed in included studies. Effectiveness was scored in terms of change of frailty status or frailty indicators and ease of implementation in terms of human resources, marginal costs, and time requirements.

Results A total of 925 studies satisfied search criteria and 46 were included. There were 15 690 participants (median study size was 160 participants). Studies reflected a broad heterogeneity. There were 17 different frailty screening methods. Of the frailty interventions, 23 involved physical activity and other interventions involved health education, nutrition supplementation, home visits, hormone supplementation, and counselling. A significant improvement of frailty status was demonstrated in 71% (n = 10) of studies and of frailty indicators in 69% (n=22) of studies where measured. Interventions with both muscle strength training and protein supplementation were consistently placed highest for effectiveness and ease of implementation.

Conclusion A combination of muscle strength training and protein supplementation was the most effective intervention to delay or reverse frailty and the easiest to implement in primary care. A map of interventions was created that can be used to inform choices for managing frailty.

Italian women tennis players go back in the world ranking: an explanation

In Italy we have a problem in Female tennis, because  we not players among the top 50 in the world ranking and only y2 two among the top 100. A disaster and, above all, the inability to build a winning movement starting from the successes of the gold cycle of Pennetta and company. Beyond organizational matters and the early introduction of young in the tournament circuits, I am convinced that one of the aspects limiting the development of tennis players is the lack of integration of psychological component in training and in physical preparation.

Tennis is a complex sport in which physical reactivity protracted in time, mental readiness and determination and technical-tactical skills are used during each point. I wonder, too, because there are no data about but only personal experience, if  these components are trained by coaches with the same determination that is then asked the players. In my opinion, this approach is flawed, the girls (but this is also true for males)pay much more attenzione to hit the ball and to win the game rather than being tough and determined.

My question is: how much time is dedicated in training to build the toughness and determination compared to the time devoted to the development of the technique and game?

I remember the words that Roberta Vinci was repeated while playing the game, then won, against Serena Williams: “run and throw it in there.” In other words, she continually motivated to be focused on the present. How many training sessions are conducted with this approach?

The winning mentality is not formed at a table but through a coordinated training on these aspects. The same is true for the physical preparation of the tennis player how much care is given to stimulate attention, motivation and toughness during the sessions? In my opinion, there is not attention at these aspects, except maybe one that spontaneously the coach and the athlete can take.

This approach to training requires close collaboration between physical coach, psychologist and coach. There are people with this kind of interest?

Youth sport: problems and solutions

Youth sport is becoming a great problem and an article published in the magazine of US Olympic Committee helps to understand what might be the reasons and proposals for solutions. I wrote in a short summary but the  article by Christine M. Brooks (Summer 2016) is certainly wider and interesting to read.

  • There is a high pediatric dropout rate from sports (between 2008 and 2013 there were 2.6 million fewer six to twelve year-old kids participating the six traditional sports).
  • Coaches are using higher training intensities at younger ages than ever before possibly causing long-term harm to young athletes (the LTAD model attempts to guide coaches about the appropriate training for children who are at different maturational phases).
  • There is an increase in childhood obesity and subsequent health problems (in the United States, 17 to 31 percent of children and adolescents are obese).
Goals
  • The principle of enjoyment embraces Mihály Csíkszentmihályi’s notion of ‘FLOW,’ that in turn, explains why individuals enjoy an activity. Approximately 40 percent of pediatric athletes in one survey claim they dropped out of sports because they were not having fun. The coaching goal is to train athletes in small, manageable learning steps so they remain in the zone of FLOW. Research indicates that educated coaches lower kids’ anxiety levels and lift their self-esteem.
  • The principle of striving for improvement involves enticing young athletes to constantly strive for the upper limits of their genetic potential while concurrently keeping them in FLOW. If they are out of ‘FLOW,’ it is theoretically impossible to motivate ongoing practice and striving, and therefore progress toward full genetic potential will be blunted.
  • The principle of appropriate training goes hand-in-hand with the child’s growth and maturation. The LTAD model attempts to match structural growth and maturation to the appropriate motor skill complexity and intensity of physical training.
  • The principle of doing no harm is at the basis of coaching. Four million school-age children in the US are injured while playing sports every year. The reason can partly be attributed to stressing a body that has immature balance and coordination beyond its capacity.

What motivation is for Arrigo Sacchi

Listen from Arrigo Sacchi what does it mean for him motivation, training and have a dream.

Risultati immagini per arrigo sacchi motivazione

Alex Ferguson’s winning rules

Alex Ferguson represents the history of football and a model of leadership studied all over the world. Below his ideas as he has told in his autobiography.
The construction of a football team - It must start from the youth activity, in order to build continuity in supplying players to the first team. The players grow together, producing a bond that, in turn, creates a spirit.
Inspire people to improve - “I have always been very proud to see the younger players as they develop.” In this way the work of a coach is similar to that of a teacher. He teaches the technical skills, the winning mentality and better people. This determines in young loyalty to the Club, since they are aware of the opportunities they have received.
Plan the future - The are players more than 30 years, those between 23 to 30 years and the younger. The success of a team is about four year cycle, and then changes are needed. The aim is to always know what is the team that you’ll want to have with an advance of a few years and decide accordingly.
Each training session is important – It must always be maintained a high training standards. They are important the motivational talks, team building, all the preparation of the team and talk about tactics. Do not ever allow an unsatisfactory training session. What you see in training occurs on the playing field. You always need quality, concentration, intensity and speed.
The talent always works hard – From the talents it must be expected a lot more than the others during the workouts. They should prove to be the best.
The locker room atmosphere must be always safeguarded – You have to wonder if someone is spoiling the atmosphere of the locker room, the team’s performance, and the control of the players and staff. If this happens you have to cut the cord. There is absolutely no other way. It does not matter if the person is the best player in the world. The long-term vision of the club is more important than any individual, and the coach has to be the most important in the club.
Encourage players - Nobody likes to be criticized, and there are few players who improve with criticism.  They should be encouraged. For a player, like any human being, there is nothing better than listening “Well done.” They are the two best words to listen. It is not necessary to use superlatives.
Correct the mistakes immediately - At the same time, in the locker room, it is necessary to indicate the mistakes when the players do not meet the expectations. This is when the criticism is important, immediately after the match, without waiting on Monday. After this time, you think about the next game and everything begins again.
In training we need to repeat – During the sessions the technical skills and tactics must be repeated.  The aim of each session is to learn and improve. This must be done even if the players can think “Here we go again”, because these repetitions help to win.
Manchester United style - Be positive, adventurous and take risks.
The observation - It’s an essential element of the skill management. The ability to see things is the key, more precisely, it refers to the ability to see things that you do not expect to see.
Change is a rule to follow - Typically who win does not think to change. It’s just the opposite. “We had to be successful — there was no other option for me—and I would explore any means of improving. I continued to work hard. I treated every success as my first. My job was to give us the best possible chance of winning. That is what drove me.”

Attentional training in shooting sports

Attentional training in shooting sports 

How to train the process to be focused under pressure

Image result for alberto cei tiro a volo

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What’s the most effective workout?

(by TIME July 6 2015)

Do you train to win?

We always talk with the expert athletes and their coaches about the relevance to repeat in the competition as they did in training. Thus the training prepares the athletes to develop and refine the skills necessary to successfully address the sport events. In this stage, the training relates only to a lesser extent on the technique acquisition, because this goal has been carried out in previous stages of the long-term athlete development (LTAD). What it’s then the training to win, following one of the best descriptions of this stage of the athletes’ sport career, by Canadian Sport for Life.

At the Train to Win stage of LTAD, training plans require double, triple or multiple periodization to accommodate the extremely high training volumes. Carefully designed periodization plans allow the high performance athlete to be able to express their full potential on competition day.

General considerations during Train to Win

  • Train athletes to peak for major competitions.
  • Performance outcomes take first priority.
  • Athletes must develop the ability to produce consistent performances on demand.
  • Coaches must ensure that training is characterized by high intensity and high volume.
  • Coaches must allow frequent preventative breaks to prevent physical and mental burnout.
  • Training must utilize periodization plans as the optimal framework of preparation, according to the periodization guidelines of the sport-specific LTAD plan.
  • The training to competition ratio should be adjusted to 25:75, with the competition percentage including competition-specific training activities.
  • Training targets include the maximization and maintenance of all athlete capacities.
  • Athletes must learn to adapt to different environments to perform their best.

The keywords in training youth: the rhythm

Few days ago finding myself having to prepare a training course for expert coaches, I thought on what it could be more interesting for them. Having few time I have tried to think of a key concept that I could leave them and that it could be just to represent and retrieve not only a word but a way of organizing the training, a way of approaching the boys, a way to management training. The key word on which I chose to reflect is rhythm. Rhythm of the training is a prerequisite for a good performance.

The rhythm is an orderly succession according to a certain frequency of any form of movement that takes place over time.

What happens in the different categories if it fails the right rhythm?
For “piccoli amici” (first category in Italian football school) to perform appropriate movements but with a low frequency and a consequent increase in waiting time will result in confusion, loss of attention and ultimately less fun for the kids.
Losing the rhythm of the “pulcini” (second category in Italian football school) in a workout means finding a team bored or subjected to excessive physical stress, in the case where the frequency of movements should be higher than the sustainable age of the children. The result will be a consequent increase in the injury probability.
The “esordienti” (third category) have more awareness of their right rhythm. A non adequate and excessive rhythm training comes a lack of confidence in their own ability. If the rhythm is low and they feel themselves not engaged in the coach proposal, there will be a lack of confidence in the coach competences.
How to give rhythm to training:

  • Right alternation of phases of activity and recovery
  • Adequate number of departures based on the number of players
  • Research of the athletes autonomy in the management of training (right times of departure)
  • Delete unnecessary pauses
  • Manage time regularly
  • Effective communication: brief, simple, essential
  • Precise management methods in launching the departures (1,2,3 away, ready way, whistle)

If the coaches are successful in giving and keep the right rhythm, they  will notice that the team members are dragged into the global movement, subordinating their own rhythm to the team, and often winning even fatigue. This situation in football will mean seeing many more children who manage independently their recovery and less that “belt shoes”.

“The child has the right to be trained at their own rhythm” (Art, 5 Children’s Rights Chart)

(by Daniela Sepio)

Mindfulness and marathon

Yesterday there was the webinar titled “The marathon mental coaching” and one question concerned the use of mindfulness in the marathon. If we mean with mindfulness “to allow the present to be as it is and to allow us to be, simply, in this present” (John Teasdale) this mental condition can certainly be useful to the marathon. During the long distance running the present is the stride or the breath. Learn how to listen it’s especially useful in the early pahses and in the end of the marathon, in which for the athletes is important to be aware of the reactions of the body. During the run the mindfulness can be differentiate from non-judgmental acceptance of the present, because the athletes may be aware that they are in trouble. For example, they realize that breathing became too frequent or the heart rate is too high, or even that the stride is becoming increasingly heavy. In these moments, the runners have to go in a state of mind more active, with the aim to reduce or counteract these feelings that are undermining the run.The runners maybe short the stride or slow down a few seconds the speed or shift the attention to other aspects, distracting from these debilitating feelings. Many runners use a dissociative strategy allowing to be focused on anything else but your own body. Paula Radcliffe said that in these moments she counts to 100, knowing that after she counted three times she ran another mile. Every runner has to find solutions during workouts. The marathon training is very challenging and difficult times met are used to find these answers and begin to put them into practice, so as to arrive at the day of the race the runners will be mentally prepared.