Tag Archive for 'arbitri'

Coaching program for referees

In the web I came across this my old article about referees which is still current and of which I propose again a section.

I have been working with volleyball and soccer referees at the highest level for about 15 years, it was for me an extremely interesting job and very well accepted in that environment. Today it is an area completely abandoned by these federations. Obviously this is what has not happened in the world, especially in soccer. We were ahead of the other countries and then gone are the managers concerned (Benito Montesi in volleyball and Paolo Casarin in soccer) this area of intervention closed to these issues of personal and professional development of referees. The book Psychology of volleyball referees is dated 1986. We were Martians while we thought it was normal.

“The program is divided into four parts: definition of the self-development plan, implementation of the formulated action program, evaluation of the results achieved and final follow-up.

The definition of the personal self-development plan is carried out in two stages. The first involves the illustration of the results that emerged from the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style and the formulation of a Personal Self-Development Plan centered on the following points:

  • Description of the main areas of improvement chosen by the referee
  • Description of the causes that have led to limited or unsatisfactory development in these areas
  • Description of what specific situations are most likely to contribute to maintaining these difficulties/limitations
  • Identification of what skills he/she wants to develop to overcome these difficulties
  • Identification of the parameters that they want to use to evaluate their improvement.
  • Identification of the actions he wants to take to improve these skills
  • Identification of who could provide him with trusted external support with which to confront and verify whether his behavior is changing.

In the next meeting, a specific goal for improvement is identified and an Action Plan is formulated.”

Ancelotti, the referees and VAR

Carlo Ancelotti, during the meeting with the referees, sai that he accepts the mistakes committed by the referees but not the one derived from the VAR.

It is evident from his words that even at the highest level there are less skilled or less experienced referees who make mistakes due to a lack of technical and psychological competences in managing the most important game situations.

It does not surprise me that this lack of competence is still present, because the referee sector is absolutely not engaged in understanding the psychological component of this type of error. I want to remind instead that when Paolo Casarin was the manager of the Serie A referees, about 20 years ago, I was lucky enough to be part of his staff and, contrary to what happened afterwards, we were engaged in identifying the mental component of the referee mistakes and promoting strategies to reduce it. The figure shows that top-level referees make mistakes because of two main factors: the pressure caused by competitive stress and the overload of analysis in decision-making. In all these years, to my knowledge, nothing has been done to improve this situation and, therefore, since individuals do not improve by magic, the referees still continue to make the same mistakes, (Source: Cei Consulting).

Do NBA refs favor the home team?

“The advantage of playing at home is universal in sports. Major-league baseball teams consistently win 54% of their home games, while their hockey counterparts take over 60%.

In many of the NBA’s early seasons, home teams were regularly winning 66% of their games. But why?

Perhaps home fans cheer on their local heroes to incredible feats. Perhaps the bed in a superstar’s mansion is more comfortable than the road hotel’s. Maybe stadiums have been fine-tuned to the liking of the home team. Maybe jet-lag hinders performance.

Or maybe, under pressure from roaring and judgmental local crowds, it’s the officials.

Since March 2015, the NBA began assessing referee calls (and notable non-calls) in the final two minutes of all games within five points, posting daily reports on its website. Last month, The Pudding compiled the data and open-sourced the results for public analysis.

Does the home team receive favorable officiating? Does it explain the NBA’s home-court advantage?

We can break down NBA calls into three categories: correct calls, incorrect no-calls, and incorrect calls:

In every category, the home team benefited.

In recent years, in basketball and elsewhere, the home advantage has been evaporating. The decline has been slow and steady in English soccer over the past century. In baseball, where home-field advantage has been at some of its weakest levels in recent years, it’s thought that closer supervision of umpires may be to thank.

And perhaps it shall be in the NBA, as referees come under more scrutiny, it disappears in basketball too.

The two-minute database will continue to grow, and we’ll continue to learn more about how refereeing affects outcomes.”

(By Oliver Roeder)

Home Court Advantage by Referees’ Calls

Team benefiting from correct calls

(Refs correctly called an infraction against the other team)

Home team - 51%________________49% - Away team


Team benefiting from missed calls, an incorrect no-call

(Refs let team get away with infraction)

Home team - 52%_______________48% - Away team


Team benefiting from incorrect calls

(Refs screwed up – called an infraction on the other team)

Home team - 56%_______________44% – Away team

Psychological aspects of the dance refereeing

Evaluation and estimation in dance are really complex conscious and not conscious processes  following these characteristics:

  • Evaluation of dancer’s abilities  (what it’s the potential)
  • Evaluation of dancer’s motor and technical skills (what someone have done to show those potentials)
  • Evaluation of personal expression (how he/she acts)
  • Evaluation of artistic expression (he/she manage the meaning of art, beauty and so on)
  • Evaluation of compatibility of dancers, cohesion between both dancers (they perform together very well)
  • Evaluation of dancer’s current performance – skills and preparation (How he/she performs now),
  • Evaluation of one’s performance versus other’s performances
  • Other unpredictable factors

An estimation is based on a simple psychological rule, the human being is able to give an objective and exact evaluation  of a certain subject.

A lot of different opinions were given about the problems of objectivity and subjectivity of measurement and evaluation. We are all very sure that objectivity of judging is quite hard to reach. The more the subject is general and not well defined, the harder is the objective evaluation. In such cases the estimation is quite subjective.  A process of judging  is always under the estimators attitudes’ influence.

Avoiding errors can be reached by some important steps:

  • training of estimators
  • strong definition of estimation subject
  • not knowing dancers (which is almost impossible) or at least avoiding settlement of estimators (for competition) who have possible strong relationship to any dancer
  • erasing upper and bottom estimations
  • standardising instructions before estimating and giving warnings  according to object of estimation before any estimation
  • controlling estimators estimations (by correlation and analysing: comparing my to other’s estimations) and warning  estimators about their mistakes
  • education of estimators
  • estimation on the base of objective scale and not just on the base of “one-to another” subjective impression

The judges’ function, in addition to being sensitive to the undeniable psychological aspects involved, it’s even more difficult than that of athletes and coaches. Not enough to know perfectly the discipline, technical aspects and rules, you must know how to apply and recognize everything promptly and accurately.
The difficulties of the judgment  provision are undoubted and also stem from the
psychological tension, the complexity of the race and the position of  the Competition Judge: the place where the event occurs, or to assess the length of time of the valuation (also exceed 10 consecutive hours). All this can be addressed and managed through adequate training route which also includes mental training.

(by Daniela Sepio)

The unwritten rules of the refereeing

The referee job  is subject to certain unwritten rules of the football world that tend to keep to a critical level the perception that fans and the wider public show toward this activity: These rules are as follows:

  • Since the dawn, sport has been a social phenomenon in which there has always been a symbiotic relationship between athletic performance and spectators, and it must be remembered that the early events of which we have knowledge date back to 5.220 bc. It means that spectators have always sided with the athletes who competed for  the different groups.
  • Football is a ritualized version of the hunt, where players are the hunters, the weapon is the ball, the prey is the gate and the referee is the tribal judge on which no one can interfere when taking a decision.
  • The decision of an referee  is against the interests of the other. Whenever the referee communicate a decision, half of the players, the coach and the audience feel some form of disappointment. This is at every level the nature  of competitive sport.
  • The reactions of the players to assigning a negative decision for them are significantly influenced by the communication style of  the referee in that situation
  • The perception of the referee’s fairness  by the public and players is extremely important, but in football this type of perception is also strongly influenced by the expectations towards the referee, for example, know that he is a referee who never gives a penalty against the home team in the last five minutes of the match.
  • The perception of referee’s fairness depends on how the players shall evaluate his competence level, independence of judgment and respect for the teams.

The referee mistakes

Start a new season in football as for the other team sports, and referees play a vital role for the proper running of the championships. To the umpires does not like to be told that they can make mistakes for excessive personal arrogance or  subordination to the teams and players. I’m not talking about technical incompetence, because in this case the mistake is not so much the referee showing this difficulty, but rather of those who have designated him for that game. On the contrary, even the most experienced international referee can make mistakes due to an excess of will to impose himself or viceversa due to an excessive caution in respect of the home team or  the most famous players. Errors of presumption or subjection toward the opponents are also showed by the high-level teams, because they are part of those behaviors in which anyone can fall when the competitive tension is very intense. The referees and their managers should not therefore deny this kind of errors, because they can occur even in the most competent people. The referees should be trained to recognize when these attitudes begin to appear in their behaviors on the field, so as to correct them immediately. A rule that I would like to transmit to the referees is to never deny themselves a difficult time but instead to recognize it as soon as possible and change their behaviors in a positive way.

Balotelli, the respect and the referees

Article by Paolo Casarin, former Fifa referees, published on Corriere delle Sera, April 30.

Balotelli says “I take one hundred fouls per game, which does not come called, but as soon as I say something I am warned.” Balotelli speaks as a  solitary-man, rather he plays football together with 21 other players and the presence of a referee, at least. All are related too the game: Balotelli to score, the other team to stop him, the referee to see if everything is done in fairness. Mario makes technical errors, the defenders bring a lot of strength, the referee judges not always accurately, but in First Division the errors are significantly lower than the well-made things, from all three. Football is a physical work group, a contest between two teams, when they are of high level, end up beating each other, within the limits of healthy competition, with each other. The duels are measured with respect for others, ready to close the confront with a handshake. “Next time do more attention,” I’ve heard a thousand times between them. The big players have no need of the referee, except to ask how much is remaining. The players competing for the first newspaper pages, first of all, must know the game of opponents, study their moves and try to overcome them. In fairness, without falling to the ground by a gust of wind. With this behavior increases the estimate between samples and aspiring champions, looking right at the “card player” with admiration, even if it is the opponent. For this exchange the shirt at the end. Mario also said that the referees do not speak with him, during the game: they prefer to avoid it and deny it, therefore, any dialogue. Balotelli has the right to be heard, like everyone else: let us remember, however, that the big players cultivate the relationship with the referee with measuring solidarity with almost no waiting.

I like this article for the idea of ​​respect and solidarity without expectations that a player must have with the referee. Balotelli will make a leap forward in her psychological maturity when you do not feel more isolated or discriminated against but as a part of the game that requires the presence of 22 players and the referee to be able to play a game. All are bound to all and respect and solidarity without expectations are necessary because the meeting does not turn into a fight.

Football and fair play

“Penalty is when  referee whistles,” said Boskov (it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vujadin_Boškov) with humor and closing immediately the controversy that often arises in relation to arbitration calls. At Juventus was denied a penalty at the 93 ° in the match against Genoa but Conte’s  and some players’ reaction against the referee is to blame. The Juventus president Andrea Agnelli said that you can not lead by Lord against error so obvious and damaging the team. I would like to know when then that we should behave as Lord, what is the scale of behaviors that at one point the Lord leaves the stage and enters the bully. It has this behavior when you want to intimidate the referee and run at the same time a warning to refereeing organization. But the behavior of Conte was similar at the player’s reaction foul and should be equally punished. Juventus have of course the right to express its reasons in relation to events that occurred during the game, to ask for explanations and more clarity in relation to rules that appear ambiguous. This does not mean passively accepting what is happening, but act in accordance with the rules. Otherwise it seems to reply the dominant culture in Italian football that is “first beat and think only if you’re forced.”

How the referee has to cope with the competitive stress

  1. Technical competence
  2. Autonomous in the assessment process
  3. Be accepted
  4. be physically fit
  5. Anticipation of the match actions

Starting from these dimensions it becomes important that the referee includes in his coaching program also the mental coaching, in order to maintain the controll of his stress during the match. Referees have to practice in this way since the beginning of their careers.

Stop to the polemics with the referees

The referees have always been a lightning rod on which to download the problems of the teams and their errors, real or assumed, and are used by presidents and coaches to show their power. Football is still the only professional situation in which the owner of the company acts as the owners of a time according to the logic that “what is not good to me is wrong and I have a right to protest, preferably with strongly and repeatedly, so who needs to understand understands that needs to change.” The situation is complicated when to protest are two presidents, Moratti (Inter) and Agnelli (Juventus), moreover, that they take each other. “Me, me, me”  children say it,  should not tell adults. “We presidents” should say, “we as presidents think that referees make too many mistakes  and we would like …” Instead, to emphasize with anger the referee performances only serves to create additional stress to a category that has a difficult job. On the Sunday following the controversy of the week, it will be difficult for a referee to be confident on the field , despite being a person who plays that role after a tough selection. Stress is not only worn the referees who become less confident about their decisions but also the teams, which in this climate are immediately ready to argue with the decisions of the umpire. In addition, many media take the opportunity to increase their audience and the presidents feel further justified to emphasize their role as custodians of the truth judges broken by the referee. We should stop this way of doing things, because I think that nobody wants a championship like this, where we lose the value of sports and turned into a bullfight in which those who can screams more.